Inhalation 1-2-3 A brief update from Inhaltion Magazine.

Parameters to consider in automated inhaler shaking solutions
imageShaking is an essential step in metered dose inhaler (MDI) and some dry powder inhaler (DPI) testing. Adequate and consistent sample preparation is a key requirement for obtaining reliable and repeatable data. In addition, the shaking technique used may change the characteristics of the delivered dose.

When selecting an automated solution for shaking, the instrument must be able to replicate parameters that human testing provides. These may include a variety of shaking maneuvres such as linear, rotary elbow, rotary wrist and rotary end-over-end. In addition, the instrument must accurately and consistently provide a range of inhaler firing parameters.

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imageComputational fluid dynamics (CFD) for pharmaceutical aerosol device development: Simulations and processes to facilitate success
CFD modeling for product development requires knowledge of the capabilities of state-of-the-art software and the adoption of a well-controlled simulation workflow. This article will review previous work in this area, illuminating CFD capabilities and the processes and considerations required to create a trusted, useful, predictive simulation to support the product development process. Some capabilities of industrial CFD for pharmaceutical aerosol applications are discussed. The fundamental workings of the standard finite volume method with Lagrangian particle tracking are explained in context, with the requirements and suggested processes for successful modeling. Looking to the future, those with relevant "CFD skills" may be attracted to careers in the pharmaceutical sector. Industry access to more advanced CFD packages, bespoke capabilities and personnel with training and experience can come through partnerships with research organizations and universities, which often retain their own high-performance computing facilities.

imageFormulation development of adhesive mixtures for inhalation—A multi-factorial optimization challenge: Part 2
The four parts of a dry powder formulation (the formulation, excipient, composition and processing) must be thoroughly understood in order to develop and optimize adhesive mixtures for inhalation. In addition, their interactions can be highly complex. Examples are discussed in this second article in a two-part series. The article also discusses the complex interaction between the formulation and the device, emphasizing they must work well together as their combined action determines the pharmaceutical performance of the inhaled DPI product. The air flow resistance of the device determines the flow rate to be used for performance characterization of the DPI product and the flow path geometry determines the modes available for fine particle dispersion. The device, therefore, plays a vital role with respect to the dispersibility of the inhaled drug product and may also set other requirements, for instance, regarding powder flowability.
Click to read the first article in the series.
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